Compiling GCC 8 on macOS Mojave | Solarian Programmer
We are ready to compile GCC now. The above command instructs the configure app where we have installed gmp, mpfr, mpc and isl; also it tells to add a prefix to all the resulting executable programs, so for example if you will invoke GCC 8. If you are interested in building more compilers available in the GCC collection modify the —enable-languages configure option.
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Grab a coffee, maybe a book, and wait … this should take approximately, depending on your computer configuration, an hour … or more … and about 5. If you want to avoid writing the above command each time you open a Terminal, save the above command in the file. Compiling and running the above lambda example:.
If you are a Fortran programmer, you can use some of the Fortran features like do concurrent with gfortran Gregoire, N. Solter, S. Kleper 2nd edition:. Because of the advantage of dynamic linking, GCC, by default, links to the shared library if it is available. When compiling the program, the compiler needs the header files to compile the source codes; the linker needs the libraries to resolve external references from other object files or libraries. For each of the headers used in your source via include directives , the compiler searches the so-called include-paths for these headers.
Since the header's filename is known e. The linker searches the so-called library-paths for libraries needed to link the program into an executable. In addition, you also have to specify the library name. In Unixes, the library lib xxx. In Windows, provide the full name such as -lxxx. The linker needs to know both the directories as well as the library names. Hence, two options need to be specified. Try running the compilation in verbose mode -v to study the library-paths -L and libraries -l used in your system:.
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For all the GNU utilities, you can use " command --help " to list the help menu; or " man command " to display the man pages. The utility " file " can be used to display the type of object files and executable files. A 'T' in the second column indicates a function that is defined , while a 'U' indicates a function which is undefined and should be resolved by the linker.
The utility " ldd " examines an executable and displays a list of the shared libraries that it needs. The " make " utility automates the mundane aspects of building executable from source code. You can issue " make --help " to list the command-line options; or " man make " to display the man pages. Let's begin with a simple example to build the Hello-world program hello.
Create the following file named "makefile" without any file extension , which contains rules to build the executable, and save in the same directory as the source file. Use "tab" to indent the command NOT spaces. Running make without argument starts the target " all " in the makefile. A makefile consists of a set of rules. A rule consists of 3 parts: The target and pre-requisites are separated by a colon: The command must be preceded by a tab NOT spaces. When make is asked to evaluate a rule, it begins by finding the files in the prerequisites. If any of the prerequisites has an associated rule, make attempts to update those first.
In the above example, the rule " all " has a pre-requisite " hello. The rule " hello.
Again, it does not exist, so make looks for a rule to create it. It runs the command " gcc -c hello. Finally, the rule " all " does nothing. More importantly, if the pre-requisite is not newer than than target, the command will not be run. In other words, the command will be run only if the target is out-dated compared with its pre-requisite. For example, if we re-run the make command:. You can also specify the target to be made in the make command. For example, the target " clean " removes the " hello. You can then run the make without target, which is the same as " make all ".
GCC and Make
A comment begins with a and lasts till the end of the line. The rules are usually organized in such as way the more general rules come first. The overall rule is often name " all ", which is the default target for make. A target that does not represent a file is called a phony target. For example, the " clean " in the above example, which is just a label for a command. If the target is a file, it will be checked against its pre-requisite for out-of-date-ness. Phony target is always out-of-date and its command will be run. The standard phony targets are: Single character variables do not need the parentheses.
You can also use vpath lowercase to be more precise about the file type and its search directory. Make comes with a huge set of implicit pattern rules. You can list all the rule via --print-data-base option. Make is actually quite complex, and can be considered as a programming language by itself!! The GNU Toolchain includes: GNU Make: GNU Binutils: GNU Autotools: A build system including Autoconf, Autoheader, Automake and Libtool. GNU Bison: GCC version 1 Initial version that support C. GCC version 2 GCC version 3 GCC version 4 GCC version 5 GCC Version 6 GCC Version 7 Cygwin GCC: Cygwin is a Unix-like environment and command-line interface for Microsoft Windows.
Cygwin is huge and includes most of the Unix tools and utilities. It also included the commonly-used Bash shell. To differentiate these variations, you need to understand the followings: If the target is native Windows, the code can be distributed and run under Windows. However, if the target is Cygwin, to distribute, you need to distribute Cygwin runtime environment cygwin1. This is because Cygwin is a Unix emulator under Windows. The executable is " iwmingwgcc ". Run the executables and check the versions: Thread model: You probably should install these two packages too.
However, to distribute the code produced, you need to distribute Cygwin Runtime Environment cygwin1. Reading man pages under CMD or Bash shell can be difficult. You could generate a text file via: To run the program: Hence, you need to include the current path.
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You also need to include the file extension, if any, i. In Unixes, the output file could be " a. Furthermore, you need to assign executable file-mode x to the executable file " a. To specify the output filename, use -o option: